Supercritical Fluid Processes

Chemical processes could be hazardous, expensive and contribute to pollution. Supercritical fluids are an alternative investigated to reduce and eliminate industrial pollution and manufacturing costs. The two examples are supercritical water in biomass refinery and supercritical carbon dioxide to replace organic solvents.
The water processes in the figure below are divided into:
  1. Incineration
  2. Gasification,
  3. Separation,
  4. Solubilization,
  5. Hydrolysis, and
  6. Conversion Reactions.


The carbon dioxide processes are:
  • Extraction,
  • Organic Synthetic Reactions,
  • Catalysis,
  • Biotechnology,
  • Polymerization,
  • Particle Engineering,
  • Textile Dyeing, and
  • Advanced Material Manufacture.

Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide

CategoryExamples
ExtractionCoffee decaffeination
Fatty acid refinery
Flavour isolation from hops
Herbal products
Organic Synthetic
Reactions
Friedel Crafts
Diels-Alder
Aldol
Claisen rearrangement
Michael addition
Kolbe-Schmitt reaction
CatalysisFisher-Tropsh
Hydroformylation
Hydrogenation
Heck reactions
Suzuki reactions
Oxidations
Alkylation reactions
BiotechnologyEnantioselective chemical transformations
Lipase catalyzed esterifacation
Enzyme in Packed column continuous flow with toluene
PolymerizationAmorphous fluoropolymers
Polysiloxanes
Some hydrocarbon polymers
Polybutylacrylate
Polystyrene
Particle EngineeringDrug delivery system
Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions (RESS)
Supercritical fluid anti-solvents (GAS)
Polymer supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (PSFEE)
Textile DyeingDye solvent for polyesters, nylon, silk, cotton and wool
Advanced MaterialIonic liquid as electrolytes in batteries, lubricants, plasticizers, extraction, inorganic and biochemical catalysis
Speed up, dry or replace aerogel fabrication
Polyimides infusion

References


Ramsey, E., Sun, Q.B., Zhang, Z.Q., Zhang, C.M. & Gou, W. (2009). Mini-review: Green sustainable processes using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Journal of Environmental Sciences-China. 21(6), 720-726. DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62330-X

Arai, K., Smith, R.L. & Aida, T.M. (2009). Decentralized chemical processes with supercritical fluid technology for sustainable society. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 47(3), 628-636. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2008.11.008

LinkWithin

Related Posts with Thumbnails